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Prebend sales: (details of the prebend sale can be found here)

The Akkadian for prebend (isqu) appears in the text transliteration written with the logogram: GISZ.SZUB.BA.  The term appears in the first half of the @obverse section of the text.

Real estate sales: (details of real estate sales can be found here)

Real estate sales can be identified in the (first half) @obverse section of the text. 

Slave sales: slave sales can be identified as such in the (first half) @obverse section of the text .  The slave being sold is usually identified as: PN, (his/her) slave.

The terms designating slaves are:

GEME2:  designates a female slave.  The term can also appear in personal names (as of 6-8-2012, these include): {f}GEME2-{d}AMA-ARHUSZ, GEME2-{d}SZU, {f}amat-{d}SZU, {f}GEME2-{d}AG, {m}GEME2-X-A, {f}GEME2-DU3{+tu4}

lu2ARAD: designates a male slave.  The term can also appear in personal names (as of 6-8-2012, these include): {m}ARAD--AMA-ARHUSZ, {m}ARAD--{d}AMA-ARHUSZ, {m}ARAD–{d}60, {m}ARAD–{d}MES, ARAD-{d}NERGALx-(U.GUR), {m}ARAD-{d}NIN.URTA, {m}ARAD-{d}MASZ, m ARAD-d SAG; m ARAD-e₂ SAG; m ARAD-e₂ re-, m ARAD-a-de-e-šu, m ARAD-x


ḫu-ṭar-aš₂-tu₄ = "slave mark"

ARAD, in these expressions (lu₂ ARAD LUGALu₂ -tu ; lu₂ ARAD LUGALu₂ -tu₂), is likely to be an indicator of a slave sale (it does appear in a clause that is specific to this type of sale, but at this point, I can only strongly assert that it is exclusive to this activity type).

Quitclaims: (go here for a template of  the quitclaim text):

The text begins on line 1 of the obverse with the following clause, with the highlighted words being particularly diagnostic:

mim-ma dib-bi DI-KU5 u3 ra-ga-mu sza2 [PN waiver/guarantor] DUMU sza2 [FN of waiver/guarantor](DUMU sza2 [GF of waiver/guarantor] {lu2}[professional designation]) A [LN] a-na muh-hi [property description] (a-na [PN property owner] DUMU sza2 [FN property owner], [PN2 property owner] DUMU sza2 [FN2 property owner] u [PN3 property owner] DUMU sza2 [FN3 property owner]

As the upper left corners of tablets are often damaged, other phrases that can be good diagnostics include:

KI [PN beneficiary] DUMU sza2 [FN beneficiary] DUMU sza2 [GF beneficiary] a-na u4-mu s,a-a-tu2 ia-a-nu ul i-szal-lat,-ma [PN waiver/guarantor] a-ga-a [property] u ma-am sza2-nam-ma e-lat a-na [PN beneficiary] a-ga-a ul i-din ul i-nam-din ki-i id-din u ki-i it-tan-nu ul u2-szu-zu u3 u2-mar-raq [PN waiver/guarantor] a-na [PN beneficiary] a-ga-a sza2 la DI-KU5 u la ha-ar3-ra 1 MA-NA KU3-BABBAR bab-ba-nu-u2 i-nam-din






Royal Names:

A name authority list for the royal names in the HBTIN corpus can be found here.

In the HBTIN legal texts, royal names occur in two contexts:

      (a) date formula:  In this section, the king's role serves to indicate a time-frame (the specific date is specified).  His name appears at the end of the @colophon section, before the @sealings section begins.  There may be one or two king's/kings' names.  Typically the king is identified by: RN LUGAL, which is to be understood as "royal name (was) king".  However, the Akkadian syntax may be modified as follows:

two kings are named, father and son:

Seleucus and Antiochus, kings  [RN u RN2 LUGAL.MESZ] (Seleucus is the father, Antiochus is the co-regent son).

Antiochus and Antiochus his son, kings [RN u RN2 A-szu2 LUGAL.MESZ]


(b) as a descriptor of the monetary unit:  In  the HBTIN texts, the sale prices are given in "staters" which are then modified with the name of the king (typically) in whose reign the transaction occurs.  This statement of the price always occurs in the @obverse section.The most fully qualified expression is:

staters of ROYAL NAME babbanutu qalu

where staters appears in the orthographies:  is-ta-tir-MEŠ; is-ta-tir-ra; is-ta-tir-ra-an-nu; is-ta-tir-ra-nu; is-ta-tir-ra-nu-MEŠ; is-ta-tir-ri-MEŠ; is-ta-tir-x; is-tat-ta-ra-nu


The scribe's name (when preserved) appears immediately following the @colophon discourse marker.  The name is followed by the text string "{lu2}UMBISAG", which is lemmatized as t,upszarru[scribe]N in the ATF. His role is neither principle nor witness.  Following the designation "{lu2}UMBISAG" is the father's name, possibly a grandfather/great-grandfather, and typically the clan name. 

Witnesses: (more detail on the formulae associated with the names of witnesses can be found here)

In the HBTIN texts, witnesses are introduced in the ATF with the @witnesses discourse marker.  The names of witnesses continue until reaching the @colophon discourse marker.  The names following the @colophon marker until reaching the @sealings discourse marker do not belong to the role of witness.

In addition, the names appearing following the @sealings discourse marker are witnesses with the exception of the names on the right edge, indicated by @right.  Therefore, all names in @top, @bottom, @left identify witnesses.


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