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Witnesses: TWO LOCATIONS on the tablet:
  • In the ATF of the HBTIN texts, witnesses are introduced with the @witnesses discourse marker. 
  • PNs and filiation statements of witnesses continue until the @colophon discourse marker. 
  • Names between @colophon marker until  the @sealings discourse marker do not belong to the role of witness.
  • Names on the edges, indicated by the discourse markers @[top] or [bottom] or [left]

@[top] or [bottom] or [left]

@column [n]
1. un-qa
$ (seal impression designation)
2. [PN of witness]

[Names on the @right edge are principals: buyers, sellers, guarantors, identified by Akkadian terminology.  See template for principals.]

  • NLP for Witnesses:
    • introduced by: {lu2} mu-kin7  or {lu2} mu-kin-nu (= Witnesses:)
    • witness filiation statements typically  fully qualified (PN/FN//LN) OR in form of PN/FN, professional title (introduced by \{lu2\}) 

    • In the absence of an ancestor name or a professional designation, a new witness can be recognized by the absence of any marker between the last item of a full filiation and the PN of the next witness, as in: Anu-uballit DUMU sza2 Anu-ab-uter Nidintu-Anu DUMU sza2 Kidin-Anu A Hunzu, where Nidintu-Anu is a new witness PN.  (this may be useful for fixing closed person instance)  move to an error handling section

    • Number of witnesses per edge varies.
    • There is a one-to-one correspondence between the names in the witness list and the names that appear on the edges. Therefore, each data-set can be used to supply or confirm information in the other.


LEP to provide professional designations that may occur in filiation statements



  • Name (and filiation statement) following discourse marker @colophon is scribe (unless it is royal name)
    • Royal names to be defined by authority list
    • Royal names followed by term LUGAL (king), LUGAL.MESZ  (if co-regency, RN1 u RN2 LUGAL(.MESZ))
  • Scribe's name ends before the date begins: ITI (month) \[authority list of 13 month names\] U4 \[n\].KAM MU \[n\].KAM


The names that appear on the right edge are those of the principals (buyers, sellers) and guarantors\/\clearers. In some cases, the name of the mother of a minor principal appears. Female names are always introduced with {f}.

Sometimes additional text appears following or below the name of the principals:  (consider below as always = following?)

  • role identification:
    • seller ({lu2}na-din(-plus))
    • clearer ({lu2}mu-mar(-plus))
    • buyer ({lu2}ma-hir(-plus))
  • family identification
    • in the cases where two brothers are typically) the sellers, their seals and name captions appear singly, but they may "share" an additional line of text that reads:
      DUMU-MESZ sza2 [father's name]
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