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Credit and Citation


Credit for origination and elaboration of ideas, and citation of authoritative expression of those ideas (e.g., in a publication) are common scholarly activities across disciplines.

A mechanism is needed to allow identification of the originator/contributor of any given object (note, tag, image, audio clip, blog, wiki contribution, article, etc.) in the digital commons, and to cite that object in a scholarly analysis.  A prerequisite to this mechanism is a way to identify digital objects persistently (irrespective of whether or where they are currently accessible, for example).




Proposed/originated by:

Steve Masover

UC Berkeley

Current facilitator(s)



Back to Identify Themes page...

What tools, standards, organizations, or efforts exist in this area of scholarly practice?


Description - what is it?

URL or other reference


A Firefox web-browser extension that serves as a "research tool that helps you gather, organize, and analyze sources (citations, full texts, web pages, images, and other objects), and lets you share the results of your research in a variety of ways." (quoted by Steve Masover)



"captures and manages all your web bookmarks, bibliographic references, personal notes and a host of other specialised data types (expandable) in a simple, searchable web interface" (quoted by Steve Masover)



"EndNote, ProCite, Reference Manager are the industry standard software tools for publishing and managing bibliographies on the Windows and Macintosh desktop. Using these products, writers save countless hours of typing and interpreting style requirements when creating bibliographies for curricula vitae, manuscripts, thesis/dissertations, grant proposals, term papers and other publications." (quoted by Steve Masover)



"CiteULike is a free service to help you to store, organise and share the scholarly papers you are reading. When you see a paper on the web that interests you, you can click one button and have it added to your personal library. CiteULike automatically extracts the citation details, so there's no need to type them in yourself. It all works from within your web browser so there's no need to install any software. Because your library is stored on the server, you can access it from any computer with an Internet connection."


Persistent Identifiers

Persistent Identifiers: Considering the Options (Publication Date: 30-July-2008 Publication: Ariadne Issue 56) is a survey by Emma Tonkin of UKOLN describing PI standards, including PURL, DOI, ARK and OpenURL. (reference contributed by Patrick Schmitz by way of Steve Masover)

PIs (Tonkin)


"A PURL is a Persistent Uniform Resource Locator. Functionally, a PURL is a URL. However, instead of pointing directly to the location of an Internet resource, a PURL points to an intermediate resolution service. The PURL resolution service associates the PURL with the actual URL and returns that URL to the client. The client can then complete the URL transaction in the normal fashion. In Web parlance, this is a standard HTTP redirect."



"Open Archives Initiative Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE) defines standards for the description and exchange of aggregations of Web resources. These aggregations, sometimes called compound digital objects, may combine distributed resources with multiple media types including text, images, data, and video. The goal of these standards is to expose the rich content in these aggregations to applications that support authoring, deposit, exchange, visualization, reuse, and preservation."



"A DOI name [is] a digital identifier for any object of intellectual property. A DOI name provides a means of persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related current data in a structured extensible way."



Oasis XRI proposes to "defin[e] a royalty-free URI-compatible scheme and resolution protocol for abstract structured identifiers used to identify and share resources across domains and applications."  The technical committee's statement-of-purpose begins: "Increasingly, there is a demand for distributed directory services that enable the identification of any type of resource, both those directly on the network and those abstract from it, and the sharing of data across domains, enterprises, and applications. Meeting this need requires an extensible, location-, application-, and transport-independent identification scheme that provides addressability not just of resources, but also of their attributes and versions."

oasis-open.org (XRI)


"The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a language for representing information about resources in the World Wide Web."

W3C's RDF Primer

Open Library

"One web page for every book."

Open Library


"Find books in libraries near you. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews"



"A blue social bookmark and publication sharing system"



"Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: a conceptual entity-relationship model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that relates user tasks of retrieval and access in online library catalogues and bibliographic databases from a user's perspective"

"Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records" in Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FRBR


"Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS) is a schema for a bibliographic element set that may be used for a variety of purposes, and particularly for library applications. The standard is maintained by the  Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress with input from users."


Dublin Core

"The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative an open organization engaged in the development of interoperable online metadata standards that support a broad range of purposes and business models."

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative


"a tool and a file format which are used to describe and process lists of references"


What tools, standards, organizations, or efforts are missing from this area of scholarly practice?


Description - what is it?

URL or other reference

sound_byte_name_or_description (your_name)

summary_description (your_name)


What part of this area of scholarly practice is within Project Bamboo scope, and why?


Description - what is it?

Why is it in scope?

sound_byte_name_or_description (your_name)

summary_description (your_name)

explanation_of_why_in_scope (your_name)

What part of this area of scholarly practice is outside Project Bamboo scope, and why?


Description - what is it?

Why is it out of scope?

sound_byte_name_or_description (your_name)

summary_description (your_name)

explanation_of_why_out_of_scope (your_name)


References (e.g., material from Workshop 1 notes or flipcharts)


  • " When referencing materials online, it would be nice to know the right way to reference that material." (ex. 6b scribe notes, 1a-D)
  • "[...] issues around citation and referencing of datasets and other materials. There are layers of interaction around primary data/sources. Hard to represent the pedigree and citation trail of work around many sources. Would like to see new interesting models around citation around these sources." (1a Table 6 scribe notes)
  • "Better citation standards; chains of credit in remixed data" (1a Table 1&2 scribe notes)
  • "Make services citable - robust citations" (ex 1 flip charts, 1c-A)
  • "sustainablity leads into problem of credit.  if i make a copy, original site can't track usage.  example of one copy going to blackboard, 500 untracked copies go out..." (ex. 3 scribe notes, 1d-F)
  • "Some areas you are getting push back in not getting credit for research. Campuses don't know how to give credit for work that's online." (ex 6a scribe notes, 1d-F)

Steve Masover

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