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This wiki space contains archival documentation of Project Bamboo, April 2008 - March 2013.

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Translation, Remediation, Manipulation

Definition

These themes cover the more conceptual or intellectual, non-mechanical transformations or modifications that can be applied to research materials after they have been Gathered and possibly Organized. (The more mechanical type of transformations, such as digitization, OCR processing, or converting from MS Word to PDF, seem to fit better with the proposed theme "Gather" which includes Create, Capture, Transform, so these are not included here.)

Translation and remediation are closely related processes that take place as textual or other content is transmuted from one form to another in the course of scholarly research. Translation may be linguistic (translation from one language into another) or conceptual (translation of information from its original form into a form that the scholar possesses more closely, such as research notes). Remediation includes activities such as transcription of oral materials (e.g. interviews), or the representation of dance choreography as written notation. It is closely related to activities of digitization and modelling, but it is not identical with them. It is also related in some ways to activities of note-taking and annotation, and also to editing.

Examples of manipulation might be coding video sequences for specific events of interest for subsequent Analysis, or creating plaster casts of archeological remains for student work (this might also be seen as translation/remediation), or translating ancient texts into a more accessible language, or TEI text encoding and HTML markup activities.  Enhancement of Gathered materials is also included, such as corrections applied to OCRed text, image enhancement by computer algorithm, or noise reduction in audio recordings.

These themes also raise the question of how to connect translations and manipulations (potentially multiples) to their originals; in some contexts, the relationship may not be one of dependency (original-translation/manipulation) but of equivalence (version-version). In a digital research environment, particularly a global and multilingual one, being able to share, disseminate, and discover translated versions of research materials is important, and so is the ability to represent the nature of the translation in formal terms.

This theme is a merger of Translation and Remediation and Manipulate.


 

Name(s)

Institution(s)

Proposed/originated by:

Julia Flanders

Brown University/ACH

Proposed/originated by:

Jim Muehlenberg

Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison

Current facilitator(s)

Facilitator_Name_Here_(optional)

Facilitator_Institution_Here_(optional)


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What tools, standards, organizations, or efforts exist in this area of scholarly practice?

Item

Description - what is it?

URL or other reference

sound_byte_name_or_description (your_name)

summary_description (your_name)

http://www.interesting_thing.org


What tools, standards, organizations, or efforts are missing from this area of scholarly practice?

Item

Description - what is it?

URL or other reference

sound_byte_name_or_description (your_name)

summary_description (your_name)

http://www.interesting_thing.org


What part of this area of scholarly practice is within Project Bamboo scope, and why?

Item

Description - what is it?

Why is it in scope?

sound_byte_name_or_description (your_name)

summary_description (your_name)

explanation_of_why_in_scope (your_name)


What part of this area of scholarly practice is outside Project Bamboo scope, and why?

Item

Description - what is it?

Why is it out of scope?

sound_byte_name_or_description (your_name)

summary_description (your_name)

explanation_of_why_out_of_scope (your_name)


References

References (e.g., material from Workshop 1 notes or flipcharts)

Contributor

  • "Figure out one Sumerian word... Translate text...Conceptualize text" (ex. 2 scribe notes, Group 1a-B)
  • "repeat, transcribe, translate" (ex. 2 scribe notes, Group 1b-B)
  • "reconceptualization and translation process. better, a transformation." (ex. 2 scribe notes, Group 1b-F: E2)
  • "Doing English translation of German metadata, should make it possible to develop other processes; could still put in French search words eventually even if there's no French version of the database" (ex. 2 scribe notes, Group 1d-A)
  • " 'translation' - say, 13th century biography text to translate. if in multiple editions, which text to follow? how do we find out who are the people named? how to corrolate chinese dates with roman? someone is given a rank, how do we understand what that rank is? normal problem of words not understood. what's the nature of the relationship between people mentioned in te biography? reading one paragraph involves many practices. 'translation' becomes a secondary/tertiary phenomenon. reason for reading the biography in the first place may be to reconstruct a social movement. behind dereferencing a term are a whole range of other practices. creation of reference tools one part of the practice of translation ought to be developing a relational database; can't assume 'i' know how to do it." (ex 2 scribe notes, Group 1d-F)
  • participants noted the dimension of interpretation or translation in the recording and transmitting observations: "designing observation strategy", "both [observing and transmitting] had a quality of remote collaboration, and transmission was significant"; "electronic capture remediates the experience, and so it changes the observance. As such, live annotation is crucial to capturing the experience" (suggesting that annotation and explanation are important dimensions of translation and remediation). (ex. 2 scribe notes, 1a-C)

Julia Flanders

  • Activate resource - particularly one primary source to another primary source - format conversion, mine website, make usable, extend. This is creative in the development of tools and techniques, but the process is actually a data/source material transformation, manipulation, munging. (Ex. 2 scribe notes, 1a-C)
  • Upgrade, revise materials each semester. ... Revise/rebuild/iterate/port/migrate resources in order to do scholarship. ... Take objects into different contexts to take a perspective & tell a story. Re-represent after others' works to put things in a new context, to separate layers to make distinct, recombine layers in a new context. (Ex. 2 scribe notes, 1a-E)
  • Data manipulation: be flexible about how I look at / query data in a marked-up data set or across several such sets. Encode and manipulate data, and run queries over it. (Ex. 2 scribe notes, 1a-F)
  • Clean up and consolidate databases and spatial analysis - in prep for interpretation. (Ex. 2 scribe notes, 1b-F)
  • Developing a workflow of giving them things (OCR/XML), and getting back their derivatives (their TEI-encoded texts) for our archives. ... A researcher wanted to get video footage and make digital copies in archive (didn't allow), allow for free use but can't own/reformat; had to negotiate between foundation and scholar. (Ex. 2 scribe notes, 1d-A)
  • H1 starting to make audio recordings of letters in a database so you can listen to them.  How does the media affect interpretation?  (Ex. 2 scribe notes, 1d-G)
  • Encode & manipulate data.  Write queries to mine data. (Ex. 2-3 flipcharts, 1a-A)
  • Revise/rebuilt/iterate/port/migrate resources in order to do scholarship. (Ex. 2-3 flipcharts, 1a-B)
  • Involve users in data correction/cleaning (sticky 11). Participate in collaborative editing (sticky 11). (Ex. 2-3 flipcharts, 1b-A)

Jim Muehlenberg

The purpose of Manipulate is to turn the Gathered research materials into a more suitable form for Analysis and other scholarly processing.  Manipulate and Analyze might be intermixed/overlapped or may separated in time, so at times the distinction may blur depending on how the research activity is conducted.

Jim Muehlenberg

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