Collaborate

Definition

Scholars need to be able to collaborate.  To do so, they need to be able to locate potential collaborators, allow collaborators to access their work and be able to control and define this access.  This access could involve assigning to others such roles as viewer, reviewer, editor and collaborator and could involve allowing others to view, comment upon, add to, edit, discuss and rate or rank their work.


 

Name(s)

Institution(s)

Proposed/originated by:

Alex Chapin

Middlebury College

Current facilitator(s)

Facilitator_Name_Here_(optional)

Facilitator_Institution_Here_(optional)


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What tools, standards, organizations, or efforts exist in this area of scholarly practice?

Item

Description - what is it?

URL or other reference

Google Docs

Google Docs allows scholars to share documents with others, inviting those others to be viewers or collaborators.  Google Docs also keeps a history of revisions allowing users to role back to earlier versions. (Alex Chapin)

http://docs.google.com/

MediaWiki

MediaWiki is the software package behind Wikipedia.  Some scholars have used this to share their work. MediaWiki is great for allowing a large, relatively unrestricted groups of users to collaboratively create and edit articles. (Alex Chapin)

MediaWiki

Confluence

Confluence is an "enterprise" wiki where scholars can share work within an institution or project (such as Project Bamboo).  Confluence adds better content management than the traditional wiki, allowing "pages" to be organized hierarchically and by tags. Confluence has more granular access control, making it possible to create "spaces" that are accessible to a particular group of users.  As well it has support for blogging, file sharing and email archives and "integrates" with Microsoft Office and OpenOffice and Microsoft SharePoint. (Alex Chapin)

Confluence

Segue

Segue is an open source curricular content management system that also has functionality for wikis and blogging and the organization of content by hierarchy and tagging.  Segue may have even more granular access control than Confluence, allowing roles to be defined at the level of "microcontent" or individual posts within a page.  Segue also allows individuals to manage their own namespace, allowing users to create any number of personal sites, assign other users/groups roles in those sites and efficiently move/copy and soon reference content across those sites. (Alex Chapin - disclosure: I am one of the developers of Segue)

Segue

Open Knowledge Initiative

The Open Knowledge Initiative (O.K.I.) defines open service interface definitions (OSIDs) for common services. The OSIDs for repository, authentication and authorization are of particular interest in the area of collaboration because when they allow content to be shared across systems in a controlled way (Alex Chapin)

http://www.okiproject.org/

Shibboleth

"Shibboleth is a standards based, open source software package for web single sign-on across or within organizational boundaries. It allows sites to make informed authorization decisions for individual access of protected online resources in a privacy-preserving manner." (from the Shibboleth site).  I think Shibboleth can be used in conjunction with the O.K.I. authentication OSID.  It allows an institution to provide single sign on across a number of applications (Alex Chapin)

Shibboleth

OpenID

OpenID is a more user-centric approach to authentication.  Users can get OpenID accounts from any OpenID provider and use this to access content in systems that provide OpenID authentication.

OpenID


What tools, standards, organizations, or efforts are missing from this area of scholarly practice?

Item

Description - what is it?

URL or other reference

sound_byte_name_or_description (your_name)

summary_description (your_name)

http://www.interesting_thing.org


What part of this area of scholarly practice is within Project Bamboo scope, and why?

Item

Description - what is it?

Why is it in scope?

sound_byte_name_or_description (your_name)

summary_description (your_name)

explanation_of_why_in_scope (your_name)


What part of this area of scholarly practice is outside Project Bamboo scope, and why?

Item

Description - what is it?

Why is it out of scope?

sound_byte_name_or_description (your_name)

summary_description (your_name)

explanation_of_why_out_of_scope (your_name)


References

References (e.g., material from Workshop 1 notes or flipcharts)

Contributor

Collaboration Tools

  • What does collaboration in research mean? What tools are needed?  We have experimented with Sakai and others - could these be developed further to support "collaborative research." What I observed is a group of people, with common purpose or interest that pull together data, manuscripts, whatever (content) and then there is a conversation around the set of content they've pulled together which leads to new chunks of content to be added in.  (Ex 3 scribe notes 1d - E)
  • High interest in Bamboo as a good basis for setting standards of collaboration, interoperability, critical mass -> body bringing us together (Ex 1 flip chart 1c - A)
  • E16: NEH very interested in collaborative work. Bamboo shows potential to provoke that. Hoping that some middleware will come out of this to constantly re-invent the wheel. (Ex 1 scribe notes 1b - F)
  • building consensus and service frameworks to enable collaboration (Ex 1 scribe notes 1b - B)
  • Tool for evaluating collaborators? (Ex 2+3 flip charts 1a - G)
  • Tool Development -Online collaboration (Ex 2+3 flip charts 1d - I)
  • Collaborative editing How - Google Docs (good for versioning control which is critical)   (Ex 4 scribe notes 1d - A)
  • Collaborative computing model that enables user-generated contributions to the semantic web (user: non-traditional & traditional scholars who are also tagged) (Ex 7 flip charts 1a - D)
  • Collaborative research tools - citation of contributed parts (to trade "credit") (Ex 6 flip charts 1c - C)
    challenges in sharing documents: -file space across institutions -checking in and out documents -change management/version controls (Ex 4+5 flip charts 1d - C)

Alex Chapin

Collaboration > Access Control

  • collaborate, but "safely" (Ex 2+3 flip charts 1d - H)   
  • control with whom I share -prior to publication or otherwise making it public (Ex 2+3 flip charts 1d - H)
  • control stages of selective releases > collaborative spaces (Ex 2+3 flip charts 1d - H)
  • 'Recommender' services/collaborating/filtering (Ex 2+3 flip charts 1d - I)
  • expand set of potential collaborators or sources of authority (Ex 2+3 flip charts 1d - I)
  • Rights and permissions of data/content -allow broad collaboration and independent scholars to be able to collaborate -providing "walled garden" of safety (Ex 6 flip charts 1d - B)
  • In trying to support collaborative research, the people may not be at research orgs, but they need protected space. Shibboleth seemed to exclude various participants as not being in the(educational) proper realm. (Ex 7 flip charts 1a - E)
  • Collaboration platform -> granular authentication (Ex 7 flip charts 1a - C)
  • Another form of uncommon collaboration is "taking control" of dissemination, through graduated levels of access - from "core" participants to the public.  Stands in contrast to ceding control over dissemination to traditional publishing process. "Community lead release of information."  (Ex 3 scribe notes 1d - B)
  • Y2: Are people using wikis, google docs, collaborative software. Illuminate is software like skype that allows you to collaboratively share. The physical space also includes whiteboards. Students use whiteboards to present. we have three in a room and students can take control from their laptops. (Ex 6 scribe notes 1a - B)

Collaboration > Institutional Support

  • Many organizations expressing interest in PB is very promising in that it may allow opportunity to set international standards for scholarly collaboration in this domain (digital humanities).  Critical mass may be achievable, and thus evolve into an international body for pulling together institutions and nations, a hoped-for outcome. (Ex 1 scribe notes 1c - C)
  • Campus mandates vs. discipline mandates. And we need these latter, else we can't do collaboration properly. (Ex 1 scribe notes 1d - A)
  • If it's a collaborative project, what's the line between content-free reusable infrastructure and actual content of scholarly analysis?
    ...Organization and professional systems that works against collaboration and sharing. The value and the rewards system by yourself/institution. We believe in sharing, but do the institutions interested in supporting the work. Hard to get things on the backs of already hard working people. (Ex 1 scribe notes 1d - H)
  • Competition-Collaboration: Faculty and IT and Library all have the same tension of wanting to work together even as individual gains propel one further in their careers. (Ex 3 scribe notes 1b - E)
  • How do we engage the EU initiatives more collaboratively? (Ex 1 flip chart 1c - B)
  • Bamboo to help outside of inst. boxes---How to push collaboration outside of inst. boundaries? (Ex 1 flip chart 1d - F)
  • H7:  how to apply collaborative work to the credit one needs for tenure? (Ex 2 scribe notes 1b - C)
  • T1: Collaborative - means at PI level the research looks a lot more like management and admin - staffing, training, resource mgmt, managing outside collaborators... Not a lot of systems in place to train for this. A lot of self training, and tacit knowledge. (Ex 2 scribe notes 1d - D)
  • Technology Adoption: -Collaboration by and with IT and scholars (Ex 2+3 flip charts 1d - I)
  • Collaborative projects, but still need things connected on national level (Ex 1 scribe notes 1c - E)
  • A3: needs to be a value proposition to the end-user community, so that they get something from collaborating (Ex 1 scribe notes 1b - B)
  • E14: Value for the tenure process of the interdisciplinary, collaborative process. Recognition of this. (Ex 1 scribe notes 1b - F)
  • Collaboration
    M2 -- common practice, under resourced, under advertised, limited to certain domains, SERVICE INTEGRATION -- intra-institutional
    M1 -- common on an institutional level, but not on the level of individual scholars (most scholarly collaboration is inter-institutional)
    Bamboo can function inter or intra-institutionally
    Need a Rewards Structure that moves across domains as well as through and between institutions
    J1 - does collaboration cross the "ivory tower wall"
    what about METHODOLOGICAL COLLABORATION -- between say engineers and historians
    sharing research notes? -- project resource management
    J2 -- sees the digital environment as pushing towards collaboration
    H1 -- need a rewards structure to validate this collaboration in the career path towards peer review, job hiring, tenure track, etc.
    P1 -- what people do needs to be supported and shared -- THAT CAN BE DONE WITHIN BAMBOO
    2 facets of collaboration: substantive and methodological
    methodological is a common goal (perhaps uncommon in practice)
    substantive is uncommon, although researchers have been sharing with each other for centuries, it would be unusual to move it back further into the research process
    (Ex 3 scribe notes 1d - C)

Alex Chapin

Collaboration > Culture

  • As editor of journal, trying to redefine editorial and peer review process. Call it a feminist editorial practice, but you could call it open access. In this review process, people can collaborate, become mentors in editorial function. Double-blind review process. (Ex 1 scribe notes 1c - B)
  • Humanities research at large research university - Responsibilities to be innovative, interdisciplinary and collaborative.  Difficulty of forcing dialogue for collaboration. (Ex 1 scribe notes 1c - A)
  • Idea behind Bamboo: each humanist a collaborator king
        --But there's education here, too: how do you find the right collaborator, appropriate vocabulary, etc.
        --Credit is difficult w/ collaboration (Ex 1 scribe notes 1c - E)
  • EU initiatives are top-down things; focus on building tools and services, collaborative approach (Ex 1 scribe notes 1c - E)
  • why humanities so far behind? M2: humanists aren't used to a collaborative model (Ex 1 scribe notes 1d - C)
  • humanities scholarship - doesn't lend itself to collaboration (Ex 1 scribe notes 1d - D)
  • Community Building - improved collaboration researchers -Interested in shared/collaborative scholarship - why can't this happen in humanities? (Ex 1 scribe notes 1d - D)
  • The role of graduate students - not and cheap labor, as collaborators. (Ex 1 scribe notes 1d - H)
  • Induce change in scholarship practices (more collaboration, openness) (Ex 1 flip chart 1b - G)
  • It's hard to get credit for collaboration (Ex 1 flip chart 1c - A)
  • unlearn 20th century tendency to work alone - collaboration is increasingly imperative (Ex 2+3 flip charts 1d - H)
  • Plan/describe collaborative relationship (sticky 10) Participate in collaborative editing (sticky 11)  (Ex 2+3 flip charts 1b - A)
  • Building relationships for collaboration (sticky 58) (Ex 2+3 flip charts 1b - E)
  • Facilitating: mentoring, facilitating collaboration (sticky 62) (Ex 2+3 flip charts 1b - G)
  • lone-wolf vs. collaborative model (Ex 2+3 flip charts 1d - I)
  • Collaboration: Grow a scholarly community; network w. other team members (Ex 3 scribe notes 1a - E)
  • 3.1.10.3.    Negotiations are different in collaborative research. (Ex 3 scribe notes 1c - A)
  • Ambiguous methodology "valued" by Humanities. -How do you maintain the ambiguity when appropriate?
  • SVN/Version as a model for dealing with these challenges that is well-suited for humanities - maintains ambiguity - managing arts and humanities collaboration (Ex 4+5 flip charts 1d - E)
  • Concept that ideas are developed collaboratively might help to make inroads to the "prejudice" against collaborative work that is currently embedded in tenure processes. (Ex 5 scribe notes 1b - C)
  • Perceptions of faculty and staff (as distinct classes incapable of working collaboratively) (Ex 5 scribe notes 1b - C)
  • S1 collaboration is now more important to researchers. Previously worked more individually. Need to unlearn those habits
    H1 new medium is somewhat threatening because research used to be a solo activity.  Now have to work with technology people, etc.    threatenting to the way we've been trained to work for 40 years.
    R1 In the sciences, haven't been able to do research by yourself.  In the humanities, want to play it closer to the vest; I want a safe place to collaborate. I only want to share with the people I want until I'm ready to publish.  I want to decide when I'm ready to move it to an archival space with metadata; decide what's worthy.
    R1 Blogs are like going back to an earlier form of journals. Wonder what kind of changes we'll see in 20 years, where young people have lived in collaborative open when all their lives.  They document everything.
    (Ex 2 scribe notes 1d - G)
  • Z12: I would say that the blogs are individual, vs. wikis for collaborative. UG is group work in a way that is not done before. (Ex 6 scribe notes 1a - C)
  • X1: We did a study of collaboration in humanities. Found post-docs were open to the idea of collaboration despite dissertations, etc. (Ex 6 scribe notes 1a - D)
  • T1: lots of experiences where broad geographical anync. collaboration is central.  we make dossiers out of what people have done (in blogs etc.) so user can include a precise of their participation in the process for reviewers.  how that will pay with review committees, can't say, not tested, but groundwork is set. (Ex 6 scribe notes 1d - E)
  • Collaboration:
    Rewards Structure  > Scholarly collaboration > Methodological collaboration
            -Cross-domain
            -Inter-institutional
            -Intra-institutional
            -Beyond the academy
            -Practice needs to evolve and influence tenure
            -Social systems  > Scholarly > Administrative
    (Ex 2+3 flip charts 1d - O)
  • collaboration. Having converstations about the research questions, the publications your producing; expanding the type of people with whom you might collaborate - from different places, technology people, non-scholars;  collaboration become a form of peer review, becoming a substitute for publication; becomes a foundation for authority; collaboration as a form of discovery; the medium/venue of collaboration
  • scholarly communication - publishing; includes collaboration; self publication, wikis, online media (Ex 3 scribe notes 1d - B)
  • There's no division between the collaboration and production.  It's artificial to distinguish between them; it's a graduated process. a (Ex 3 scribe notes 1d - B)
  • When you look @ new incoming faculty/grad students, what are they bringing with them?  •assumption of online collaborative applications (Ex 6 scribe notes 1b - D)
  • Archaeology - Work tends to be collaborative, so there needs to be knowledge of specialist tools o    English on the other hand being solitary, there's a lack of collaborative knowledge (Ex 6 scribe notes 1c - B)
  • Incoming Students: 6 - in engineering, a community of collaboration 3 - CS students still feel a conflict within collaboration; industry versus school (Ex 6 scribe notes 1d - B)
  • critical editions not authoritative unless they are collaborative (Ex 2+3 flip charts 1d - N)
  • performing arts: practical work is not lone-wolf (Ex 2+3 flip charts 1d - N)

Alex Chapin

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